16 Jan english civil war vs french wars of religion
Most of early history, these was no seperation of church and state, so they were one and the same. On 23 December 1588, at the Château de Blois, Henry of Guise and his brother, the Cardinal de Guise, were lured into a trap by the King's guards. 19 terms. , Printing in mass editions (including cheap pamphlets and broadsides) allowed theological and religious ideas to be disseminated at an unprecedented pace. Along with French Wars of Religion and Huguenot Wars, the wars have also been variously described as the "Eight Wars of Religion", or simply the "Wars of Religion" (only within France). The Battle of White Mountain (1620) in Bohemia was one of the decisive battles of the Thirty Years' War that ultimately led to the forced conversion of the Bohemian population back to Roman Catholicism. The assassination of Mary Stuart's Catholics cousins, the Guise brothers (31st December 1588) followed by the assassination of King Henry III (2 August 1589) plunged France into chaos. The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1629. Thirty Years' War. The House of Guise had long been identified with the defense of the Roman Catholic Church and the Duke of Guise and his relations – the Duke of Mayenne, Duke of Aumale, Duke of Elboeuf, Duke of Mercœur, and the Duke of Lorraine – controlled extensive territories that were loyal to the League. Francis I, however, had no quarrel with the established religious order and did not support reformation. Philip Benedict, ‘Un roi, une loi, deux fois: Parameters for the History of Catholic–Protestant Co-existence in France, 1555–1685’, in O. Grell & B. Scribner (eds), Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation (1996), pp. The reformed politicke.  She was prepared to deal favourably with the House of Bourbon in order to have a counterweight against the overmighty Guise, arranging a deal with Antoine of Navarre in which he would renounce the rights to the regency in return for the freedom of Condé and the position of lieutenant general of the kingdom. ), Representing France and the French in Early Modern English Drama (Newark, 2008).- Lisa Parmelee, Good Newes from Fraunce: French Anti-league Propaganda in Late Elizabethan England (Rochester, 1996).- Joad Raymond, Pamphlets and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain (Cambridge, 2003).- John Salmon, The French Religious Wars in English Political Thought (Oxford, 1959).- Alexander Wilkinson, Mary Queen of Scots and French Public Opinion, 1542-1600 (New York, 2004).- Cornel Zwierlein, The political thought of the French League and Rome (1585-1589) (Geneva, 2006). In France, unlike in Germany, the nobles also supported the policies and the status quo of their time. Henry secretly left Poland and returned via Venice to France, where he faced the defection of Montmorency-Damville, ex-commander in the Midi (November 1574). 65–93. Looking for a more customisable solution? The city prepared to fight to the death rather than accept a Calvinist king. The advise is followed by fresh news from Normandy: a peasant tax revolt (the 'Gautiers'), manipulated by the Catholic League, was crushed by the royal army in April 1589. Coppie de l'anti-Espagnol was undoubtedly written by Antoine Arnauld, a famous lawyer appreciated by Henry IV. But their eventual return to Switzerland was followed by major developments in the Reformation that would later grow into Calvinism. The text supports the idea of a Gallican Church against the power of the Pope: the Catholic League was seen as an attempt to rule France directly from Rome. However, in September 1589, Henry inflicted a severe defeat on the Duke at the Battle of Arques. Despite the campaigns between 1590 and 1592, Henry IV was "no closer to capturing Paris". Its account even inspired dramatists, such as Christopher Marlowe in The Massacre at Paris, written c. 1593, and also Thomas Dekker and Michael Drayton in their lost play The Civil Wars of France (1598-9).  At the same time, Francis was working on a policy of alliance with the Ottoman Empire. When a country is in disorder and corruption, people tend to change the bad, old government to the good, new government. It is a classical libel against them.  The French intensified the fight against heresy in the 1540s forcing Protestants to gather secretly to worship. While the wars of religion often began as conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, there were political, economic, civil, and national reasons behind the wars as well. Refer to religious arguments in addition to your own. He urged the French not to join the Catholic League and reminded his audience that sovereignty comes from God, who alone "translates the sceptre", and not the people. In 1560, Jeanne d'Albret, Queen regnant of Navarre, converted to Calvinism, possibly due to the influence of Theodore de Beze.  The decision of King Louis XIII to reintroduce Catholicism in a portion of southwestern France prompted a Huguenot revolt. It was reprinted in 1609, and was a powerful statement of Protestant history and a reminder to its audience of the dangers posed by the internal enemy at home. In November, William of Orange led an army into France to support his fellow Protestants, but, the army being poorly paid, he accepted the crown's offer of money and free passage to leave the country. Henry II sincerely believed that the Protestants were heretics.  A group of Protestant nobles, led by the prince of Condé and proclaiming that they were liberating the king and regent from "evil" councillors, organised a kind of protectorate over the Protestant churches. For Henry and the Protestant army at least, Parma was no longer a threat. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. A timeline chronology showing 17th Century Wars, the main wars of the seventeenth century, including name of war, dates and combatants However, they both show the strong impact of the French Wars of Religion in England during the seventeenth century. Protestant aristocrats with the right of high-justice were permitted to celebrate marriages and baptisms, but only before an assembly limited to ten persons outside of their family. Henry and his advisor, the Duke of Sully saw that the essential first step in this was negotiation of the Edict of Nantes, which to promote civil unity granted the Huguenots substantial rights—but rather than being a sign of genuine toleration, was in fact a kind of grudging truce between the religions, with guarantees for both sides. The French Wars of Religion were of fundamental importance to the course of British History in another way. Further readings The pamphlets online:- Early English Books Online (by subscription); French Political Pamphlets; ...and a great exhibition about religious books held by Archbishop Matthews curated by my colleague Dr. Stefan Bauer: it is digitised here). This assassination began the series of events known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. In the early morning of 24 August, they killed Coligny in his lodgings with several of his men. His essay titled “The Religious Context of the English Civil War” famously claimed that the English Civil War was “the last of Europe’s wars of religion” (pp. He was a French protestant who wanted to convert Jews in many places in Europe.Both the French original version and the translation of Le Politique réformé were printed by Richard Field in London in 1589.  Criticisms from the population played a part in spreading anticlerical sentiments, such as the publication of the Heptameron by Marguerite, a collection of stories that depicted immorality among the clergy.  In 1681, he instituted the policy of dragonnades, to intimidate Huguenot families to convert to Roman Catholicism or emigrate. Parma was subsequently wounded in the hand during the Siege of Caudebec whilst trapped by Henry's army. The damage done to the Huguenots meant a decline from 10% to 8% of the French population. Henry of Navarre again sought foreign aid from the German princes and Elizabeth I of England. The fragile compromise came to an end in 1584, when the Duke of Anjou, the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, died. Defenestration of Prague ... French Wars of Religion Test.  Francis had been severely criticized for his initial tolerance towards Protestants, and now was encouraged to repress them. Viewing the House of Guise as a dangerous threat to the power of the Crown, Henry III decided to strike first.  His mother continued to play a principal role in politics, and she joined her son on a Grand Tour of the kingdom between 1564 and 1566, designed to reinstate crown authority. This pivotal historical event involved a complete breakdown of state control resulting in series of riots and massacres in which Catholic mobs killed between 5,000 and 30,000 Protestants over a period of weeks throughout the entire kingdom. It echoed the succession crisis in England. The council debated the religious issue at Poissy all summer. In early 1562, the regency government attempted to quell escalating disorder in the provinces, which had been encouraged by factional feuds at court, by instituting the Edict of Saint-Germain, also known as the Edict of January. Matters at Court were complicated as King Charles IX openly allied with the Huguenot leaders — especially Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. The crown hastily negotiated a truce of seven months with Alençon and promised Casimir's forces 500,000 livres to stay east of the Rhine, but neither action secured a peace. Translated out of French into Englishe (London, 1583), held by York Minster Library.- See: Hugh Dunthorne, Britain and the Dutch Revolt, 1560-1700 (Cambridge, 2013): "Of the thirty-six English-language pamphlets relating to the Dutch Revolt which were published in London between 1566 and 1584, no fewer than twenty-six were translations from Dutch or French, the two main languages of the Low Countries" (p. 8).- Malcom Walsby, "Printing in French in the Low Countries in the Early Sixteenth Century: Patterns and Networks", in The Multilingual Muse: Transcultural Poetics in the Burgundian Netherlands (Cambridge, 2017), p. 54-70. The English Civil War was starting to brew when, the Scottish king, James I came into power. Abstract. It focused on the biblical basis of faith as a free gift of God, salvation by faith alone, and the importance of understanding in prayer. In France, Huguenot opposition to the crown was seriously weakened by the deaths of many of the leaders.  Much of the Huguenots' financing came from Queen Elizabeth of England, who was likely influenced in the matter by Sir Francis Walsingham. In response Henry said he would reopen hostilities with the Huguenots but wanted the Estates-General to vote him the funds to carry out the war.  Later, Louis Bourbon would become a major figure among the Huguenots of France. Under these circumstances salvation by grace through faith in Jesus was a pleasant alternative (although Luther did teach baptismal regeneration). But the civil war was more than a religious war. It was possibly translated by the English playwright Anthony Munday who was also Messenger to Her Majesty’s chamber. By Bryan A.  But by the middle of the century, the adherents to Protestantism in France had increased markedly in number and power, as the nobility in particular converted to Calvinism. They are relics of an emerging public sphere which laid the foundations for Britain's own seventeenth-century civil wars and Revolution.Click here to access the Chronology (pdf). Libels, Secret Histories, and the Politics of Publicity in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (Oxford, 2016).- Daniel Lee, Popular Sovereignty in Early Modern Constitutional Thought (Oxford, 2016).- Jean-Christophe Mayer (ed. Leslie was forced to flee to France where he composed, among other pamphlets, this treatise. England's main enemy, Spain, intervened to support the Catholic cause.  Inexperienced and faced with the legacy of debt from the Habsburg–Valois conflict, Catherine felt that she had to steer the throne carefully between the powerful and conflicting interests that surrounded it, embodied by the powerful aristocrats who led essentially private armies. Comparing the English Civil War and the French Revolution Introduction The English Civil War and the French Revolution were some of the events that shaped history in the 18th century. Events there directly impacted England: many French Protestants took refuge across the Channel and Elizabeth I intervened militarily to support the Protestant cause. Nhat Nguyen European History Mr. Heaston 30 Jan 2014 The Similarities and The Differences between The English Civil War and The French Revolution Civil wars, protests, and revolutions have taken place in all countries in this world. Thus, a national council of clergy gathered on the banks of the Seine River in the town of Poissy in July 1561. See l'Hôpital speech to the Estates General at Orléans of 1560. The legislation made concessions to the Huguenots to dissuade them from rebelling. Foreign allies provided financing and other assistance to both sides, with Habsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supporting the Guises, and England supporting the Protestant side led by the Condés and by the Protestant Jeanne d'Albret, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, and her son, Henry of Navarre. This group (pejoratively known as Politiques) put their hopes in the ability of a strong centralized government to maintain order and harmony. Meanwhile, the solidly Catholic people of Paris, under the influence of the Committee of Sixteen, were becoming dissatisfied with Henry III and his failure to defeat the Calvinists.  Their plans were discovered before they could succeed, and the government executed hundreds of suspected plotters. King Henry III at first tried to co-opt the head of the Catholic League and steer it towards a negotiated settlement. The Edict of Beaulieu granted many concessions to the Calvinists, but these were short-lived in the face of the Catholic League – which the ultra-Catholic, Henry I, Duke of Guise, had formed in opposition to it. He claimed that the marriage would mean that the English people would befall the same fate at their coreligionists. In the 1580s France became home to a community of English Catholic exiles, who plotted with French sympathisers to overthrow Elizabeth. On 17 August 1563, Charles IX was declared of age at the Parlement of Rouen ending the regency of Catherine de Medici. That is, an apologie for the generall cause of Reformation, written against the sclaunders of the Pope and the League was translated from the version named Le Politique réformé… by Jean de Fregeville. Accordingly, the Estates-General pressured Henry III into conducting a war against the Huguenots. Features. , The lower orders of society were where Protestantism made its impact in France. A true discourse of the discomfiture of the Duke of Aumalle, with his troupes of horsmen in Picardie… was printed in 1589 by Richard Field from the French original Vray discours sur la deffaicte des Duc d'Aumalle… It refers to the important battle of Senlis in May 1589: the allied forces of Henry III and Henry of Navarre defeated the Catholic League's troops led by the Duke of Aumale, a member of the Guise clan.  Calvinism, another form of Protestant religion, was soon introduced by John Calvin, a native of Noyon, Picardy, who fled France in 1535 after the Affair of the Placards. The Italian revival of art and classical learning interested Francis I, who established royal professorships in Paris, equipping more people with the knowledge necessary to understand ancient literature. The King knew that he had to take Paris if he stood any chance of ruling all of France. similarities and differences between english civil war and french revolutionI need some simple answers quickly please. English Civil War vs. French Revolution This essay will explain the English civil war and the French revolution. An exhibition held at Old Palace, York Minster (17 Oct-21 Nov 2017) curated byDr. , On 10 March 1560, a group of disaffected nobles (led by Jean du Barry, seigneur de la Renaudie) attempted to abduct the young Francis II and eliminate the Guise faction. The exact number of wars and their respective dates are the subject of continued debate by historians; some assert that the Edict of N… The sight of his blood enraged his followers, and a general massacre of the inhabitants of Vassy ensued. It was part of the wider Wars of the Three Kingdoms. French Wars of Religion(at least 9 wars occurred between 1562-1598) After the death of Henry II in 1559 a power struggle between three noble families for the Crown ensued. In Germany the territorial formula of cuius regio, eius religio applied—that is, in each petty state the population had to conform to the religion of the ruler. Wars of Religion, Excluding the English Civil War Pt. A leader of the Catholic League, he invoked the hereditary rights of his wife, Marie de Luxembourg, who was a descendant of the dukes of Brittany and heiress of the Blois-Brosse claim to the duchy as well as Duchess of Penthièvre in Brittany, and organized a government at Nantes. At the dawn of the 18th century, Protestants remained in significant numbers in the remote Cévennes region of the Massif Central. 8 terms.  Humanist scholars, who approached theology from a new critical and comparative perspective, argued that exegesis of Scripture must be based on an accurate understanding of the language(s) and grammar(s) used in writing the Greek scriptures (New Testament) and also, later, the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament), rather than relying exclusively on the Vulgate, a Latin translation of the Bible, as in the Medieval period. He was, however, removed from the position of governor by the Spanish court and died in Arras on 3 December. At the Siege of Rouen (May–October 1562), the crown regained the city, but Antoine of Navarre died of his wounds.  Thirdly, Catherine might try to heal the religious division in the country by means of a national council or colloquy on the topic.  In the Rhône River valley, Protestants under François de Beaumont, baron des Adrets, attacked Valence; in this attack Guise's lieutenant was killed.  The Catholics were commanded by the Duke d'Anjou—later King Henry III—and assisted by troops from Spain, the Papal States, and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.. The Meaux Circle was formed by a group of humanists including Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples and Guillaume Briçonnet, bishop of Meaux, in the effort to reform preaching and religious life. Meanwhile, the Queen Mother became increasingly fearful of the unchecked power wielded by Coligny and his supporters, especially as it became clear that Coligny was pursuing an alliance with England and the Dutch Protestant rebels.  Francis tried to steer a middle course in the developing religious schism in France. The Massacre of Mérindol took place in 1545 when Francis I of France ordered the punishment of the Waldensians of the village of Mérindol. Although it bears some similarity to other translations from the French, this is another original text in the Minster collection. That July, the French expelled the English. phi 445. need help asap phi 445. When it became clear that Henry of Navarre would not renounce his Protestantism, the Duke of Guise signed the Treaty of Joinville (31 December 1584) on behalf of the League, with Philip II of Spain, who supplied a considerable annual grant to the League over the following decade to maintain the civil war in France, with the hope of destroying the French Calvinists. On his deathbed, Henry III called for Henry of Navarre, and begged him, in the name of statecraft, to become a Catholic, citing the brutal warfare that would ensue if he refused. On 22 August, an assassin made a failed attempt on Coligny's life, shooting him in the street from a window. —Alexis de Tocqueville, L’Ancien régime… The efforts of Habsburg rulers failed to restore Catholic unity across Europe. Its partisans massacred a Huguenot congregation at Vassy (1562), causing an uprising in the provinces. whoever desires this civil war is ungodly, and to take notice of two maxims: the first, that the peace ofyour subjects lies in the union of your princes; and the other, that violence eventually leads only to self-destruction." Corruption among the clergy showed the need for reform and Lutheran ideas made impressions of such hope. The exact number of wars and their respective dates are subject to continued debate by historians: some assert that the Edict of Nantes in 1598 concluded the wars, while the ensuing resurgence of rebellious activity leads some to believe the Peace of Alès in 1629 is the actual conclusion. The background was the execution in 1581 of the Jesuit priest Edmund Campion among others. Lincoln, Bruce, Discourse and the Construction of Society: Comparative Studies of Myth, Ritual, and Classification, Oxford University Press US, P98. Works such as Farel's translation of the Lord's Prayer, The True and Perfect Prayer, with Lutheran ideas became popular among the masses. , Protestant ideas were first introduced to France during the reign of Francis I of France (1515–1547) in the form of Lutheranism, the teachings of Martin Luther. The English Civil War was, therefore, part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, with England the last to take up arms against its king. The revocation of the Edict had very damaging results for France. In January 1595, the king declared war on Spain to show Catholics that Spain was using religion as a cover for an attack on the French state—and to show Protestants that his conversion had not made him a puppet of Spain. The Battle of La Roche-l'Abeille was a nominal victory for the Huguenots, but they were unable to seize control of Poitiers and were soundly defeated at the Battle of Moncontour (30 October 1569). Huguenot leaders such as Condé and Coligny fled court in fear for their lives, many of their followers were murdered, and in September, the Edict of Saint-Maur revoked the freedom of Huguenots to worship. Having then made a miraculous escape from there, he withdrew into Flanders, but with his health quickly declining, Farnese called his son Ranuccio to command his troops. Humanism, which began much earlier in Italy, arrived in France in the early sixteenth century, coinciding with the beginning of the French Protestant Reformation. For other French civil wars, see, Corruption of the established religious system, The "Amboise conspiracy," or "Tumult of Amboise", Colloquy of Poissy and the Edict of Saint-Germain, The "Armed Peace" (1563–1567) and the "second" war (1567–1568), St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre and after (1572–1573), Death of Charles IX and the "fifth" war (1574–1576), The Catholic League and the "sixth" war (1576–1577), The "seventh" war (1579–1580) and the death of Anjou (1584), The Estates-General of Blois and assassination of Henry of Guise (1588), Henry IV's "Conquest of the Kingdom" (1589–1593), Resolution of the War in Brittany (1598–1599). Protestants seized and garrisoned the strategic towns of Angers, Blois, and Tours along the Loire River. This though might lead directly to civil war. There guardsmen seized the duke and stabbed him in the heart, while others arrested the Cardinal who later died on the pikes of his escort. Union (Frederick V) Frederick V. 1620 defeated @ Battle of White Mountain. , In the absence of the duke of Anjou, disputes between Charles and his youngest brother, the duke of Alençon, led to many Huguenots congregating around Alençon for patronage and support. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 B. Roman Catholic doctrine and the definitions of its orthodox beliefs were unclear. They are representative of the variety of the texts in circulation. Prior, Charles W. A., and Glenn Burgess, eds. In the 1550s, the establishment of the Geneva church provided leadership to the disorganized French Calvinist (Huguenot) church. Wars of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. ", The massacre of Vassy, on 1 March 1562, provoked open hostilities between the factions supporting the two religions.  Evidently Henry's conversion worried Protestant nobles, many of whom had, until then, hoped to win not just concessions but a complete reformation of the French Church, and their acceptance of Henry was by no means a foregone conclusion. The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom.  Catherine chose the third course to pursue. Historians estimate that in the 1560s more than half of the nobility were Calvinist (or Huguenot), and 1,200–1,250 Calvinist churches had been established; by the outbreak of war in 1562, there were perhaps two million Calvinists in France. Mercœur's daughter and heiress was married to the Duke of Vendôme, an illegitimate son of Henry IV. As Henry III had no son, under Salic Law, the next heir to the throne was the Calvinist Prince Henry of Navarre, a descendant of Louis IX whom Pope Sixtus V had excommunicated along with his cousin, Henri Prince de Condé. In France a civil war between Calvinists, called Huguenots (led by the Bourbons), and the Catholic majority population (led by the Guise family) turned into a complicated mess. Some further points of resemblance between the two may be noticed.  Furthermore, the reduction of salvation to a business scheme based on the 'good works for sale' system added to the injury. 1 of wars of religion breakdown: Hapsburg-Valois Wars, Spains Catholic Crusade, Spain vs. England, French Civil Wars, and Thirty Years' War STUDY The collapse of monarchical authority during the English Civil Wars and French Revolution followed a sustained period of delegitimization of the respective royal families of England and France.During the reigns of Charles I and Louis XVI, the queen had been judged within the popular ideological climate concerning the place of women within their families without respect for her position. She was intent on preserving the independence of the throne. Trevor Dupuy, Curt Johnson and David L. Bongard, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography, (Castle Books: Edison, 1992), p. 98. De Iusta Henrici Tertii abdicatione e Francorum regno was written by a radical French Catholic preacher, Jean Boucher, in Paris in 1589. 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